Training Report of the Agroforestry Training

Proof-read by translation team Stefanie Mayer-Haake and Sylvie Tiesler

TOT Training

Day 1

  1. Introduction Hired by Kaule e.V., NAF (Nepal Agroforestry Foundation) has given a TOT (trainers of trainers) training to 16 farmers from Kaule, Nuwakot. Training was scheduled for 13 days and included theoretical aspects and practical demonstrations. Five trainers from NAF side and one social scientist took part as trainers to complete the TOT training altogether: Ramji Dhakal, Krishna Kumari Rai, Ramji Sapkota, Dr.Bishnu Hari Pandit and Netra Kumari Pandit were the trainers from NAF.
  1. Expectations of farmers At the start of the training, the participating farmers' expectations were collected so that the trainers could adapt the training to their particular requirements. The following lists the expectations collected from the farmers:
  2. Objectives: The overall objective of the TOT training was to introduce an improved farming system based on agroforestry. One goal was to enable farmers to understand the difference between the conventional agriculture and the new agricultural system, and to understand how the new system could improve their lives. Furthermore, as an organised system, farmers will become autonomous and this will enhance development the community as a whole. The following lists some of the objectives which were set as a guideline when designing the entire TOT training:
    1. Participants will understand about agroforestry; its importance, character and its effect on livestock; and human health and economic development.
    2. Participants will gain knowledge & skills about the process of forming groups for the extension of agroforestry, fruit tree management and home garden establishment.
    3. After gaining the knowledge and skills about seed sowing and cutting plantation. Farmers can provide home nursery training to others.
    4. Participants will gain knowledge about community forestry & management as well as about NTFPs (non timber forest products), its importance & ways of cultivation.
    5. Participants can gain knowledge about hedge rows, soil protection, nitrogen fixation plants & their effect on the soil.
    6. Participants can collect the data of agroforestry and community forestry through the PRA system.
    7. Participants can utilize the equipment provided by NAF.
    8. Participants will gain knowledge and skill about important species for agroforestry, its plantation distance, planting methods, harvesting the grasses, and agroforestry management.
    9. After gaining the knowledge and skill from demonstration of agroforestry nursery, participants will prepare their own agroforestry working plan.
    • To know about advantages of AF
    • Qualities of plants and benefits
    • What plant species are included in AF
    • How can AF improve quality of life
    • What resources are required and what are the steps that constitute the process to conversion to AF
    • To know about AF management
    • To know about social development in AF
    • New species of fruits in AF
    • How to plant new species
    • Importance of AF, impact on living conditions and ecological balance
    • How to protect AF
    • Knowledge about plants
    • Where to get plant material for AF
    • To know about pesticides
10. Participants will gain knowledge and skills about livestock management and its importance.
  1. Discussion about Agroforestry In the view of the farmers AF includes:
    • Combination of agriculture products and fruits in the same place
    • Combination of medical plants and non timber forest products (NTFP) and birds and fishpond
    • Bee keeping
    • Combination of grass, trees and agricultural products
    • A place where plant, animals, fodders and grass are found
    • A place for NTFP products and fodder
    • Health should be improved and alcohol consumption stopped (no more wine)
    • A place where different types of NTFP and food (agricultural products) can be found
  1. Discussions about fodder including the following fodder plants: Dhudilo, Paiyo, Sagur, Kutilo, Chuletra, Nimaro, Kimbhu, Khanayo, Bhadar , Khadraso, Tanki, Koiralo, Sil, Timur
  2. Discussions about fodder grass including the following local fodder grasses: Kans, Siru, Kharo, Phurke, Banso, Raucha, Nepiar, Malasses, Salimbur, Hatibandon, Maslahari, Kuku, Dhubo, Klohbar, Ratnaulo, Saterio

Day 2

  1. Report of the 1st day
  2. Set up of daily responsibilities
    • Person to provide reports
    • Person to evaluate lessons from previous day
    • President to control daily timetables
    • Person for entertainment (games, music, dance)
  3. Importance of AF in the farmers' view
    • good availability of fuel, wood and fodder
    • improvement of soil condition
    • forest protection
    • protection against land slides
    • time saving because its not necessary to go to the forest
    • decreasing the possibility of getting handicapped
    • protection of water sources
    • protection of nature
    • chance to use new skills and knowledge
    • improvement of environment
    • improvement of economic conditions
    • sustainability in agriculture
    • improved education and health
    • decrease in possible diseases
  4. Discussion about steps of development
    • Information
    • Interest
    • Given possibilities
    • Experience
    • Sustainable reproduction
  5. Discussion about farmers group
    • What is the working group / makes the working group? Fulfil the common aims and objectives of two or more people gathering, implementing their own rules and regulations.
    • Why is a group necessary? To be powerful and to help each other, to reach the aim, to meet the common goal more easily.
    • Who are the members of a group? Persons with similar problems or who pursue the same aims or objectives.
    • What is the importance of AF groups?
    • It is important to put into practice the skills and knowledge of AF which are gained by the TOT training of Kaule and to reap further benefits together.
    • How are members and committee members chosen? They are chosen upon vote by all group members.
  1. Agroforestry Systems There are three main types of AF Systems which are of importance for farmers in Kaule:
    1. Silvi agro system Forest + Agriculture crops In this system, priority is given to the forest. In case forest is not yet developed, farmers who do not own land can utilise the governmental/communal fields .
    2. Agro silvi pastoral system In this system, the land is divided into three parts and is used for forestry, agriculture or pasture.
    3. Agro silvi system The agricultural products are most important. As importantly, fodder. trees and nitrogen fixation plants are grown on terrace borders. The same piece of land provides crops, fodder, fruits, fire wood and NTFP's without impacting the agricultural production.
    4. Characteristics of Agroforestry Systems
  • Positive effects on agriculture
  • Reduction of manure flow out
  • Mixed crops - reduction of diseases
  • Reduction of land slides
  • Reduction of time spent on farming
  • Livestock management saves crops
  • Harvest all year round
  • Resulting in a higher source of income
  1. Management of livestock and household
  • Management by stable feeding
  • Fodder and food can easily be harvested
  • Increasing livestock
  • Income is generated through increased livestock
  • Well managed plantation time table
  1. Effects of agroforestry on livestock, human health and economic status
  • Increasing livestock
  • Income implementation
  • Time saving
  • Improvement in health of humans and environment
  • Reduction of labour time
  • Improvement of farmers' living conditions
  • Improvement of organic manure production
  • Increase in knowledge and skills
  1. NAF shows education material for the development of agroforestry It seemed that farmers preferred pictorial information materials, as it is easier to memorise than spoken words. For instance, one of the pictures showed interrelation between humans, livestock, agriculture and forestry. It showed the dynamics of inter-relations.
    1. Discussion on Merits and Advantages of AF
    2. Knowledge gained by the field visit (farmers' view)
    3. Discussions about trainers
    4. Discussion about species found in the Mid- Hills

Day 3

  1. Discussion about previous day sessions Learning and understanding
    • It is helpful in livestock management as it produces grass and fodder
    • It helps to harvest different types of products from the same piece of land
    • Reduction of pressure on forests because fodder, fuel wood, and wood can be harvested on private fields.
    • Increase of local people's incomes.
    • AF helps control land slide and increases the soil quality
    • Utilisation of waste land
    • Improvement of the environment
    • Time reduction
    • Time can be used for other activities like child care, health care and others
    • Decrease of diseases in crops
    • Income generation through collection of seeds
    • Improved health
    • Availability of grass fodder, fire wood, fuel wood and fruits
    • Life will be easier because there is less need to carry heavy goods
    • Help with education
  1. Demerits of agroforestry If not well managed it might have harmful effects on agricultural crops, like planting trees improperly in random locations, shadow of trees might be harmful to agricultural crops. Roots of big trees might harm crops and create difficulties in ploughing However, farmers could not highlight factors like complexity of the system leading to problems if people do not follow all the given rules.
  2. Farmers' Field visit (Jas Rams farm) During the field visit, Ramji Dhakal was present as trainer and Jasram as the farm owner. We found that manure was well managed: urine was collected in one place. We also found that fodder plants were planted on the terrace borders and vegetables grew in the middle plain areas. The land owner however remained as mediator and mostly listened.
    • Management system of manure
    • Way to make compost manure
    • Way to collect dung and urine
    • Plantation of fruits and fodder trees on the border and crops in the field
    • Trees do not harm agricultural crops if they are well managed
    • Trees, crops, fodders, vegetables and grass can be grown in the same field
    • Pounds can be made near the houses
    • Income increases in small fields of land
    • Agricultural products can be produced inside the fields
    • Control of land slides if trees are planted at the border of fields
    • We can do anything if we want
    • Who is a trainer? A person who is skilled to train and has enough knowledge about relative subjects
    • What are the things that a good trainer should have? Ability to speak eloquently, good knowledge of fields and farmers subjects/ skills, active, having a good personality, trustful, simple language, having a constructive way of thinking ahead, a person who behaves equally to every person, starting from his own learned ways, giving a good example.
Use Species Advantage groups
Fodder Badhar, Koiralo, Tanki, Gidhari, Dhabdhabe, Kavro, Kutmiro, Chuletro, Gogan, Dhudhilo, Nimaro, Kimbhu, Pakhuri, Epil Epil, Githo, Rai Khanayo, Gayo, Siltimour Woman
Fuelwood Utis, Bakaino, Chilaune, Sallo, Siris, Katus Woman
Wood Salla, Chilaune, Bakaaino, sagur, Paiyu, Champ Man
MTPs Chiuri, Lapsi, Badhar, Amala, Kimbhu, Ritha Woman and Man
Green manure Ashuro, Siris, Khiro, Bhakaino, Dhaicha, Saghiwan, Titepati, Snahamp, Sesbaneya, Banmara Woman and Man
Windbrake Siso, Epil Epil, Siris, Utis, Tanki, Simali, Bans Woman and Man
Hedge Row Sajiwan, Simali,Asuro, Phaledho, Nilkarda, Bans, Nijgalo, Calindra Woman and Man

Day 4

  1. Repetition of previous day
  2. Evaluation of previous day
  1. Discussion about farming
  2. Local species:
    • What is a farm? A farm is a place where cultivation is done from an economical point of view
    • What should be included in an AF farm? Fodder, Grass, medical plants, fruit, vegetable, agricultural crops, livestock, fish ponds, trees, bushes, Nitrogen fixing plants, cash crops Fish pond: a simple type of fish pond can be used in agroforestry farm. Tree: that kind of tree which does not have a negative impact on other crops. Bushes: must not have a negative impact on other crops. N fixing plant (nitrogen fixing plant): leguminous plant such as epil, tanki, bhatmase etc. Cash crops: crops which are cultivated mostly to generate a quick income. For example, sugarcane, mustard etc.
  1. Importance of agroforestry farming and farms: Income generation, protection of health, fodder and fuel wood production, management of livestock, increasing soil quality, landslide control, daily life routine, improvement of environment, produces food and nutrients, provides employment, improvement of plant health and decrease of diseases, shelter, windbreak, keeps soil moistures, reduction of soil nutrient erosion, enhancement of species (biodiversity plant and animal).
  2. Drawing of a picture that shows an agroforestry farm as an example.
S.N Species Leguminous Purpose
1 Dhudilo - fodder, fuel wood
2 Bhatmase v fodder, fuel wood
3 Epil v Fuel, fodder
4 Tanki v Fuel, fodder
5 Raikhanayu - Fuel, fodder
6 Nimaro - Fuel, fodder
7 Khasreto - Fuel, fodder
8 Kimbhu - Fuel, fodder
9 Kutmiro - Fuel, fodder
10 Chuletro - Fuel, fodder
11 Gogan - Fuel, fodder
12 Masurekatus - Fuel, fodder, wood
13 Phalat v Fuel, fodder, wood
14 Koiralo v Fuel, fodder, wood
15 Champ - Fuel, fodder, wood
16 Bhadhar - Fuel, fodder, wood
17 Kalosiris v Fuel, fodder, wood
18 Sagur - Fuel, fodder
19 Napier - grass
20 Sateriya - grass
21 Ghaighans - grass
22 Whitecalobhar - grass
23 Raighans - grass
24 Badameghans - grass
25 Mathnapier - grass
26 Amriso - Grass, fuel
27 Nigalo (Small bamboo) - Grass, fuel
28 Bans (Bamboo) - Grass, fu
  1. Example Agroforestry farm planning Estimation of grass:
    • How much livestock does the farmer have?
    • How much grass is needed during the year?
  • How much grass does the farmer have? A unit is the amount of grass that one buffalo consumes in one day. 1 unit = 9 kg of hay and/or 25 kg of grass consumed in a day
  • 1 buffalo counts 1 unit
  • 1 calf counts 0.5 unit
  • 2 ox counts 3.5 units
  • 5 goats counts 0.5 units
  • 2 goat kittens count 0.1 units
  • Total livestock - 5.6 units (estimation)
  • 1 unit of livestock needs 9kg hay per day.
  • And 1 unit of livestock needs 20-25 kg of grass per day.
  • So, 5.6 units of livestock need 40880 kg of grass per month.
  • 30-40 kg of grass can be produced in 1sq.m
If a farmer needs 8,000 kg grass per year then he has to plant 200 plants of epil.1022m sq. mixed fodder & grass should be planted.
    • How much area is needed to meet 5.6 units? Answer: 9 kg of hey+ 25 kg of grass times 5.6. this can have multiple combination of answers depending on the type of livestock and available food.
  1. Criteria for the selection of tree species for seed collection:
    • It needs to be healthy
    • Matured object
    • Fully ripened
    • Trees with many branches should be used for fodder production
    • Trees that are straight, long and with less branches should be selected for wood
    • Trees with many branches should be selected for fuel wood.
  2. Cleaning and sorting of seeds For non-leguminous plant species with fleshy meat, the seeds should be washed with ash and water. For leguminous plant species, plants should be exposed to the sunlight and after drying, plants should be beaten with sticks so that seeds will be separated from the plants. Seeds should afterwards be kept in a safe place.
  3. Way of agroforestry planting
  1. From seed
  2. From cuttings
  3. From vegetative generation

Day 5

  1. Reporting of the previous day
  2. Evaluation of the previous day
  3. Discussion about the subjects learned the previous day.
  1. Introduction of vegetables that are suitable for agroforestry systems
Vegetables Forms of energy and Growth Period
Cucumber Vitamin B, D
Karela (Bitter gourd) Vitamin A, B, C, Calcium
Pumpkin Vitamin A, B, C
Lauka (Squash) A, B, C, Calcium, Iron
Vede Kursani (Green pepper) C
Chilli A, C
Swiss chard A, C, Calcium, Iron, Proteins
Cauliflower:
Silver cup 35 days
Milkway 55 - 60 days
White flash 55 - 60 days
Snow crown 80 - 100 days
Snow castik 85 - 110 days
Kibo giant 120 - 160 days
Cabbage:
Nepali green
Green gridinate
Ray (mustard green)
Khumal Chauda / Kalegi
Marfa Chauda / Kalegi
Local Kalo
Tomato:
Bises Special
Sirjana
Lapse
  1. Criteria for the site selection for vegetable cultivation:
    • Conditions of temperature and light
    • Wall - natural or human induced as a wind protection/barrier (vegetable nursery should be protected from wind)
    • Irrigation - water access
    • Easy access to the site
    • Suitable soil
  2. Criteria for suitable soils for vegetable growth
    • Compost 5%
    • pH 5.5 - 6.5
    • Earthworm 100 - 150 per sq.m.
  • Porous soil is suitable for vegetable growth
Compost manure for vegetable cultivation: 1000kg of compost manure is necessary per ropani (5476 sq.ft of land area) for vegetable cultivation. 1000kg = 25-30 doko (bamboo made as a common carrier on the back of farmer) Nursery for vegetable To be used: Mud from forest soil, sand, manure. 1. To purify those components 2. Mixture: 2 parts of mud, 1 part of sand and 1 part of manure. It is important to choose an appropriate size of a planting bed. It should be at minimum 1 meter wide and long. Depth should be 6 inch. A frame by stone, brick or wood will be helpful. Into this construction the above mentioned mixture can be filled. One other possibility is to fill earth into pollybags and to use the pollybags into the bed. (Important: Pollybags produces plastic waste, make sure to collect those plastic afterwards as it won't be resolved by nature for about 100 years and it takes oxygen from deeper layers of the soil.)
  1. Plant species for nursery bed and pollybagsriteria for the site selection for vegetable cultivation:
Nursery bed Pollybag
chilly cucumber
tomato pumpkin
cauliflower squash (long green)
cabbage bitter gourd
onion
bringel al
  1. Local organic pesticides
Neem 2 handfull/palmfull Marigold 2 handfull/palmfull Chilly 4-5 handfull/palmfull Onion 3-4 handfull/palmfull Garlic 3-4 handfull/palmfull Grind and mix 0.5 litre of above ingredients with 0.5 l of water. Boil 10gm of soap per l of water in an additional pot. Mix afterwards and filter. Spray on plants. Natural pest controller: Attracting plants for butterflies: Titepati Bakaino For Insects: A mixture of 1: 4 ratio of buffalo/cow urine with water (acts as insecticide and manure) For red ant: 1 part tobacco liquid (take some gram and let it remain in water for few hours), 1 part buffalo/cow urine and 2 part of water. Spray mixture at the bottom.
  1. Different types of nursery a) private nursery (commercial) b) community nursery c) home nursery
  2. Different types of nursery beds a) raised bed b) shrunk bed c) tray bed
12. Seed treatment against diseases and insects: Put seeds for 2-3 minutes in a bowl with hot (boiled) water and cover. (Epil) 13. Types of grasses
Stilo
Molasses
Rai grass
Tai grass
NB-21
Nepier
14. Grass keeps the moisture in the soil and protects the nutrient of the soil. Grass should be planted with other crops as fodder.
  1. Group discussion about seed species When is the best time for seed collection and how long can they be stored for?

Day 6 and 7 (lesson by Rajan Ghimire IAAS / TU, Nepal)

Training Content
  • Concept of living soil / biologically active soil
  • Living soil for good agriculture and forestry
  • Requirements of good working soil for Agroforestry
  • Management options for maintaining good working soils:
    • Plant nutrients for soil, crop and human health
    • FYM improvement
    • Compost, quality and use
    • Crop rotation and crop management
    • Tillage management
    • Crop residue management
    • Soil moisture management
    • Conservation practices and soil erosion management in hill agriculture
  • Demonstration on how farmers can test their soil quality
  • Demonstration and exercise by using conservation practices/ slope management
  • Demonstration on preparation of liquid manure from use of local medicinal herbs
Introduction Soil is the unconsolidated surface of earth having organic and inorganic matters that provides support to the plant, supply nutrient, water and air for their growth and has microorganisms that recycle minerals for life. They are the life for farmers. Soil management for sustainable agroforesrty needs maintenance of active and living soil for long enough time to sustain the productivity and profitability of farmers. For this to be successful, those involved in the management of the soil must have a thorough understanding of soil system and its requirements. Soil systems should be cared as living being. They need to be nourished through timely application of nutrients and amendments, should be irrigated when dry, should be properly tilled and protected against erosive loss. Problem soil should be reclaimed to revive their productive capacity. Integration of local technology with advanced technologies can make our soil more productive, more fertile and more potent for our future generations. Thus the two days training program covered concept of living soil and sustainable / practical techniques of soil management to maintain living / productive soil in agroforestry system. Practical tools, demonstration and excursion were also included in the two days session. Training sessions Session 1. Introduction among participants to the subject matter and the content. Introduction of participants to each other and with training facilitator is important aspect of effective learning. Thus, we introduced each other, familiarized and shared with each other about their background. That was necessary for entry into the subject matter. The second activity was participatory planning of two days activities in and collection of expectations from farmers in soil management part of the training. Then training facilitator described briefly about subject matter then jointly prepared the list of activities to be completed in two days. We covered following technical contents in two days' sessions.
  • Concept of living soil / biologically active soil
  • Living soil for good agriculture and forestry
  • Requirements of good working soil for Agroforestry
  • Management options for maintaining good working soils:
    • Plant nutrients for soil, crop and human health
    • FYM improvement
    • Compost, quality and use
    • Crop rotation and crop management
    • Tillage management
    • Crop residue management
    • Soil moisture management
    • Conservation practices and soil erosion management in hill agriculture
    • Practical exercises and demonstrations related with above mentioned topics
Session 2. Is soil living? This session covered concept of living soil, the biggest biological laboratory containing millions and billions of microorganisms working day and night for decomposition of organic matter, cycling of nutrients and regulation of soil processes (Table 1). First, farmers' perception was collected about whether they consider soil as living or not followed by discussion on concept of living soil. Table 1. Soil organism numbers per gram of a good soil.
SN Organisms Number
1 Bacteria 108 - 109
2 Actinomycetes 107 - 108
3 Fungi 105 - 106
4 Algae 104 - 105
5 Protozoa 104 - 105
6 Earthworm 30 - 300 m-2
Soil in itself is not living but all processes going on in soil makes it living. Topsoil consists of particles of various size including sand, silt, and clay in different proportions but pile or physical mixture of these particles does not represent real soil and it is not capable of growing a crop. In addition to rock particles, real topsoil consists of a complex community of living creatures both seen and invisible, each class of organisms with its own strategies for feeding itself (utilizing energy sources), adapting to environmental conditions, and competing against (and cooperating with) its neighbours. Living organisms in the soil include bacteria, fungi, protozoa (single-cell animals), nematodes (miniscule non-segmented worms), arthropods (from microscopic to several inches long-insects, spiders, mites, centipedes, etc.), earthworms, and larger organisms such as moles, voles, even gophers, which have their role to play in recycling nutrients and maintaining good soil structure. Session three and four: Soil management options Requirements for good quality This section covered the requirements for good quality soil. Various requirements for being a good working soil for agriculture and agroforestry as perceived by farmers was listed in newsprint and they were categorized into different groups. Finally, requirements for good quality soil were described using the chart on the side. Among various management options management of farm yard manure is the most important one, so we discussed that as most important factor. Technique of improving the quality of farmyard manure and saving the loss of nutrients from it was discussed. For practical understanding of farmers' demonstration of farm yard manure of different quality was practiced during discussion. Similarly, where farm yard manure is not sufficient or not available, farmers can use compost, so technique of effective composting and testing of compost quality was also discussed in this session. Advantages of farm yard manure and compost was also discussed in the session and thus soil quality improvement by farm yard manure was one of the important aspects covered. Soil quality test in overall was not possible thus training facilitator demonstrated only the technique of soil pH test as describing soil pH as one of the indicator of good soil health. Second day: Session 1: review of the first day and continuation of soil management options This session covered the reporting of the first day, participants' evaluation of the first day and continued other management options including crop management options like crop rotation, mixed cropping and integration of different types of plants (soil depleting type, soil maintaining type and soil building type) in agro-forestry. Soil building crops include legumes and cover crops that protect soil and add nitrogen fixing it from atmosphere. Session 2 and 3: Soil moisture management and slope management Value of mulching and crop residue management for moisture conservation and addition of organic matter was discussed in this session. Organic matter can conserve moisture better than the inorganic soil. Thus addition of organic matter is the cheapest way of maintaining soil wet for longer time. Additionally, use of crop residue mulch has good meaning for maintaining good moisture for longer time. Slope management in hill agriculture and agroforestry is important task for building good soil quality. Loss of topsoil causes gradual degradation of soil and losses its fertility. Thus value of soil erosion control by use of vegetative barrier and terracing was discussed and demonstrated practically. During the same time we also discussed on the shortcomings of the indigenous fertility management practices in hill agriculture and practical ways to solve the problems associated with them. Session 4: Preparation of compost tea (Practical) and Additional discussion on farmers' problems in the field. This session covered the technique of preparing compost tea to control disease and pests and also as fertilizer. The compost tea can be prepared by use of different local medicinal herbs chopped and then fermented anaerobically. Afterward, we discussed on several issues of farmers and their problems in their existing cropping system. Most of the problems included diseases and pests in crops, thus we discussed on the sustainable solution to solve these problem.

Day 8

Training by Bishnu Hari Pandit
  1. Report about the previous day lessons
  1. Discussion about necessary elements for plants
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Potassium
Magnesium
Iron
Cupper
Boron
Zinc
Molybdenum or lead
Calcium
  1. Types of plants
a) evergreen b) deciduous plants

Day 9

Practical Day Terraces previously built and located at the back of the house were cleaned. Necessary material was collected in a common effort by project component and participating farmers. Many different types of nurseries were developed. Farmers learned how to measure and construct beds (sized 5m by 1m). The frames were made of bamboo. Preparations were made to use a sieve soil. Poly bags were filled with soil previously prepared and stored. A mixture of soil, stone and mud serves as an appropriate soil base (which is used in different combinations based upon the type of terrain like facing, gradients and moisture). Stone is used as soaling in lower surface. One part of soil and one part of sand was used. Usage of manure is optional and recommended provided that it is of good quality or collected from an area which is covered by decomposing layers. Afterwards, the nursery bed was separated into different sections in order to grow chilly, asparagus, lapsi, bakcinio (Melia azederach), bamboo, NB-21 and so on for future selection. Plastic was used to cover the bed or to prevent shrinking of the bed.

Day 10

Practical field exercise Polybags were filled with a mixture of sand, soil and manure. A nursery for bamboo, nigalo, amriso and alaichi was established on a new terrace. Bamboo cuttings were sampled by farmers land and planted in the new nursery. In addition, vegetative parts of nigalo, amriso and alaichi were provided by farmers and planted. Spacing between all those plants in the nursery bed is 50 - 60cm.

Day 11

  1. Practical class about seed treatment Seeds of Epil and Bathmase are kept in hot water for 2-3 minutes. Afterwards the same seeds are kept in cold water for 12-24 hours before plantation. Seeds of asparagus (kurilo) are kept in cold water for 24 hours. Bitter gourd is kept for a short term in hot and afterwards for 24 hours in cold water. Seeds need to be treated with hot water because of their hard covers. Seeds need to be kept in shade after the treatment.
  2. Nursery preparation NB-21 seeds are planted and mulch is used to cover the seeds (dry leaves) in order to keep them moisture. Kimbu is cut into 15 cm long branches and placed into the soil. Leaves serve as well for mulching.
  3. Seeds sown in tray beds More valuable species are grown in tray beds. First gravel is added to the lower surface. Then a layer of hay is added. The surface level is added as a mixture of severed mud, sand and manure. One part of seeds is mixed with two parts of sand and sown. Hay serves as mulching material to cover. Watering.
  4. Grafting Trifoliate has been used as rootstocks and lemon as sign. Tongue grafting and side grafting has been demonstrated.
  5. Collection of farmers demands for plant material A detailed list of plants, their number and possible distribution was collected from the participants. These names collected were later converted to make a distribution and seasonal based calendar. Each plant or seed provided to the participants is expected to be grown in area which will be allocated to the agroforestry project.

Day 12

  1. Ways of livestock management in the village of Kaule Human, goat and chicken are living together in the house Disadvantages:
    • Transmission of diseases
    • Health risk
    • Lack of hygiene and cleanliness
    • Insects, parasites
    • Smell
    • Unsafe business: business is unsafe because livestock may cause disease & humans may be affected.
    • Harmful to animals: unsafe for new-born babies & disease may transfer from one animal to other.
    • Harmful to humans: humans may clash with livestock.
Livestock should be kept in a separate stable, Tatno (a cross made of bamboo used for hanging grass & fodder) for goats.
  1. Specific goat breed suitable for Nepal:
  2. Selection for a better reproduction
  3. Parasites of goats:
  4. Fish ponds
  5. Pesticide by using cupper, sulphate and lime or white wask a) Boda mixture: It is an organic fungicide, not very toxic.
    • Long legs
    • Long ears
    • Bigger size
    • Health, no diseases
    • Not too fat
    • Not to slim
    • Reproductive organs need to be free of diseases
    • No incest (difference of 5 generations)
    • Male needs to be changed every 1.5 years
    • internal parasites
    • external parasites
  1. Treatment of parasites Paste of salt and titepati (a local tree) can be rubbed on the fur
    • Dig the ditch
    • Smear with dung and mud
    • Spread the plastic
    • Pour water in
    • Put compost manure in a bag
    • Put DAP (inorganic manure) 1kg per ropani in the pond
    • 1.5 kg urea
    • Food
    • Fish
  1. Nursery plantation Epil, Epil ISO, Phalamen, Gia conjesta ( Bhatmase), Bitter gourd (korela), Pumpkin (pharsi), cucumber and asparagus have been planted into polybags. Nimbaro was sown into the nursery bed. A shed was built. Disscussion about a green house for chilly, cucumber and bitter gourd and establishment of a plastic tunnel for the nursery.
  2. Environmental protection and effect of plastics. A plastic bag was passed on to every participant. In the end, it was handed back to the trainer (Krishna Kumari). They were made to put their heads inside the bag and tie it air tight for minutes. Each managed to stand the lack of air supply. Later, the trainer showed them the effects and told them that plastic does not decompose nor does it allow the soil to breathe, and that therefore it should be disposed of safely. It should only be used in small quantity. If it is used in high quantity and thrown anywhere, it will create some problems. Therefore after using a plastic bag, it should be disposed of safely.

Day 13

  1. Registered Farmers were visited to choose an appropriate place for the establishment of a nursery.

Day 14

  1. Improvement of cow sheds: Cowsheds should be kept at a small distance from the houses. Urine should be collected in a dedicated place. Dung should be collected in a pit hole. Livestock animals should be kept separate from each other.
    • Copper sulphate 0.25g
    • Lime 0.25g
    • Water 30 - 32 litre
Can be used for scars and openings or any cut part of fruit tree, and the tree dying of leave parts, mildew in plant. Tincture needs to be sprayed before and 24 hours after preparation. b) Boda paste
    • Cupper sulphate 45g
    • Lime 50g
    • Water 9 liter
    • Oil 90ml
  1. Soil treatment Soil can be treated by providing mulching of green grass it should not be kept barren. There should be enough moisture in soil. Field shouldn't make sloppier otherwise all nutrient of soil may flow. Hedge row should be used in order to control soil flow. Community forestry (hereafter CF): the commonly known concept of community forestry is given to participants. CF is a distribution method by which a part of national forest is handed over to members of the community for protection, management and its utilization.
  2. Annual planning of participants Participants were presented with what is defined as an annual planning agenda. They were asked to review their requirements, the objective of the project and the actions they expected to carry out throughout the year.
  3. Annual planning of agroforestry Similarly they were also introduced into the possibility to have agroforestry in their farms. They were however in slight confusion as, whilst they had established nurseries, they had not received any new plants.
  4. Evaluation of training Training was evaluated by asking deliberate questions to selected farmers who take part in the project, for them to express their issues with the training.
  5. Distribution of polybags As a starter of material distribution, every participant was given a certain number of polybags.
Comments: The last day was not a proper closing day. Part of the wrapping session and distribution of nursery materials, certificates, seeds and minute taking took place on one of the following days.